• Arachidonic acid metabolic pathway
    Autoimmune diseases

    Arachidonic acid metabolism pathway

    Arachidonic acid metabolism Pathway Arachidonic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid with a chemical formula of C20H32O2, 20:4(ω-6). In this chemical formula, 20:4 refers to its 20 carbon atom chain with four Cis double bonds, while (ω-6) refers to the position of the first double bond from the last, omega carbon atom. The four double bonds of Arachidonic acid makes it susceptible to oxygenation, which leads to excessive number of metabolites of significant importance for the proper function of the immune system, promotion of allergies and inflammation, resolving of inflammation, mood, and appetite. Arachidonic acid is often referred to as Omega-6 fatty acids. It is usually present in phospholipids of cellular…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    Covid-19 Spike protein: structure and functions.

    Covid-19 (coronavirus) spike protein mediates the entry of corona virus into the host cell. It is a multifunctional molecular machine that mediates coronavirus entry into host cells by binding to the receptor on the host cell surface through its S1 subunit, and then fuses viral and host membranes through its S2 subunit. The coronavirus spike is composed of three segments, ahich are a large ectodomain, a single-pass transmembrane anchor, and a short intracellular tail. The ectodomain consists of a receptor-binding subunit S1 and a membrane-fusion subunit S2. The spike is a clove-shaped trimer with three S1 heads and a trimeric S2 stalk. During virus entry, the S1 binds to a…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    Role of HBx protein in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)

    Hepatitis B virus X (HBX) protein is a multifunctional viral protein that regulates different cellular processes such as the modulation of protein degradation pathways, transcription, apoptosis, signal transduction, cell cycle, and genetic stability, by interacting with the host factors either directly, or indirectly. HBx is known to play a major role in the pathogenesis of viral induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The carboxy terminal of HBx has been shown to likely play a role in protein-protein interactions, transcriptional transactivation, DNA repair, cell, signaling and pathogenesis of HCC. HBx protein structural and functional relationship HBx is a 154-amino acid regulatory protein with a molecular mass of approximately 17 kDa. The X-protein consists…

  • Cajanol in cancers
    Autoimmune diseases

    Cajanol: The role of phytoestrogen in cancer cells

    Cajanol (5-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl)-7-methoxychroman-4-one) is an isoflavanone from Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)roots. It is the most active phytoalexin in pigeon pea, with a chemical struture of C17H16O6. Cajanol belongs to the group of isoflavonoids with methoxy group C7 of the isoflavonoid backbone. Benefits of cajanol in cancer cell inhibition Cajanol is beneficial to the body. It has been proved to exert anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenesis to cancer cells. It is also a strong antibacterial compounds against both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Mechanism of action of Cajanol There are several biochemical pathways by which Cajanol exert its action against cancer cells and bacteria. In this article, you will learn the mechanism of action…

  • Folic acid benefits for men
    Autoimmune diseases

    Folic Acid Benefits For Men: Why You Should Eat Folate Rich Foods

    Folate is one of the water soluble vitamins, vitamin B9, which your body cannot synthesize on its own; you must eat foods rich in folate if you don’t want to develop symptoms associated with its deficiency. Whereas folate is a natural product, folic acid is the synthetic form of it and has several benefits for men. It is an essential micronutrient required for the synthesis of both RNA and DNA, for cell division, growth and development. When there is a deficiency of folic acid in your body, the cellular processes which require folate would be hampered. This may lead to several autoimmune and metabolic disorders.   Health Risks Associated With…

  • Small flower willow herb
    Autoimmune diseases

    6 Amazing Health Benefits of Small Flower Willow Herb

    Willow herb (Epilobium parviflorum) is a perennial herbal plant. It has thick rhizomes with short shoots at it base. The stem is tall and cylindrical with hairs. It has narrow-lanceolate leaves which are small and sharply toothed. The flowers of willow herb are small and red-purple in color with four petals, eight stamens and a stigma with four lobes. The fruits of willow flower herb are elongated capsules which contain seeds that are covered with numerous silky hairs. Willow herbs usually bloom between June and August. Phytochemical Composition of Epilobium parviflorum The chemical composition of willow herb can be classified accordingly as follows: Flavonoids These include Kaempferol, Kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, Kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, Quercetin,…

  • 5 Amazing health benefits of Monkey sugarcane ( Costus afer)
    Autoimmune diseases

    5 Amazing Health Benefits of Monkey Sugarcane

    Monkey sugarcane (Costus afer) has five amazing health benefits that would surprise you. The plant, which is always greenish and perennial, is usually found in West African countries ad beers white and yellow flowers. Every part of Monkey sugarcane offers an amazing health benefits. Other common names of Costus afer include Okpete, Tete-egun, or Mbritem. The plant contains some bioactive compounds that have nephroprotective properties on the kidneys. It also protects against neurodegenerative diseases as well as protection of the pancreatic beta cells.   Phytochemical Components of Costus afer   Costus afer contains several phytochemicals in their roots, stems, rhizomes and leaves. Some of the phytochemicals include: Alkaloids Tannins Phenols…

  • Monkeypox virus infection when it has spread across the body.
    Autoimmune diseases

    Monkeypox Virus Infection

    Monkeypox is a smallpox-like rare infectious disease that is mainly spread by wild animals such as rodents and squirrels. Monkeypox virus belongs to the Orthopoxvirus genus in the Poxviridae family. The disease is mainly spread in West and Central Africa, but was discovered during the pox-like disease outbreak of the virus in Denmark in 1958.   How Do You Get Infected by Monkeypox Virus? Monkeypox virus infection is transmitted to human through the handling of infected animals or by direct contact with an infected animal’s body fluid. It can also be transmitted from one person to another through contact with large infective respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected person.  …

  • Roles-of-MMPs-in-tumor-cell-metastasis-The-roles-of-MMPs-in-metastasis-are-multifold.
    Autoimmune diseases

    Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs)

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of Zinc-dependent endopeptidase that degrade various proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM). As members of the metzincin group of proteases, they share the conserved zinc-binding motif in their catalytic active site. Initially, MMPs were thought to function mainly in degrading ECM, but recent studies has shown that they also function significantly as regulators of extracellular tissue signaling networks. MMPs are defined by the presence of two conserved zinc-binding motifs. One motif is a cysteine-containing pro-domain, whose function is partly to restrain catalytic; whereas the other motif is a histidine-rich catalytic domain, responsible for the endopeptidase activity. MMPs Are Involved in Various Physiological and Pathological…

  • Angiogenesis
    Autoimmune diseases

    What is Angiogenesis?

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels. It is the process by which the body forms new blood vessels from existing ones. This process occurs throughout the life of an individual, starting in the uterus and continuing to old age. Angiogenesis occurs both in healthy tissues as well as in diseased ones, such as in cancer cell growths. Why Does Angiogenesis Occur in the Body? Angiogenesis takes place when a particular body part or tissue requires the supply of nutrients and to it. In hypoxia tissues, the need for oxygen supply to the parenchymal cells is detected by the oxygen sensing mechanisms, which then demands the formation of new…