• Alopecia areata
    Autoimmune diseases

    Alopecia areata

    Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disorder that affects the hair follicles and causes the hair to pull out of their follicles. It is also known as spot baldness. The pattern and amount of hair loss is different for different individuals. Some individual loss their hairs in just a little patch while others lose theirs in different sport on the head. Many people who develop Alopecia are usually healthy. They may lose their hairs and at times, nails changes, however, they remain healthy. When Alopecia affects the nail, one may see ridges, dents or brittle nails, while some develop red colored nails. Types of Alopecia areata Although Alopecia areata is common…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    Phenylketonuria

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which is detectable at early days of a new born, and via regular new born screening. PKU is associated with the deficiency of an enzyme called phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), which catalyzes the hydroxylation of phenylalanine to tyrosine. The deficiency of PAH cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) can also hamper the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Amino acids are essential building blocks for the synthesis of proteins and for cellular functions. Some amino acids serve as precursors for the synthesis of others. An enzyme usually catalyzes the conversion of those precursors to their products. When enzymes are absent or deficient, a buildup of…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    Amino Acids

    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. They are essential for the running and maintenance of normal body systems. Proteins are polymers of amino acids, with each amino acid residue joined to its neighbor by a specific type of covalent bond. General Properties of Amino Acids Each of the amino acids used in protein synthesis has the same structure. They contain a carboxylate acid group, an amino group attached to the Alpha-carbon in an L-configuration, a hydrogen atom and a chemical group called the side chain. The side chain is different in each amino acid compound. In a solution and at physiological pH, the free amino acids exist as…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    Amino Acid Biosynthesis

    The biosynthesis of each Amino acid is carried out in a unique pathway from that of another. This is because each of the amino acid, especially the 20 common amino acids, has a distinct structure. However, some generalities do apply to both the synthesis and the degradation of all amino acids. Essential and nonessential amino acids The 20 amino acids found in human body can be classified into essential and nonessential amino acids. Essential amino acids are those that must be present in a diet, and which the body cannot synthesize. They include: Arginine Histidine Isoleaucine Leucine Lycine Methionine Threonine Phenylalaine Tryptophan Valine The pathway for the synthesis of essential…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    Peptic ulcer

    Peptic ulcer occurs when there is an open sore in the gastro-intestinal tract. That is, when there is an open sore in the patient’s stomach and/or upper part of the small intestine. Peptic ulcer can be gastric or duodenal: Gastric ulcer occurs when the open sore is on the inside of the stomach. Duodenal ulcer occurs on the inside of the upper part of the small intestine.   Symptoms of Peptic ulcer There are several symptoms of peptic ulcer. The most common among them are: Heart burn Nausea Bloating Burning stomach pain Frequent stool Burning stomach pain remains the most common among the symptoms. Burning stomach pain results from imbalance…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    LUPUS

    Systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) or simply, Lupus is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease with a wide range of clinical presentations resulting from its effect on multiple organs and systems. Patients with SLE experience a loss of self tolerance. This is because of abnormal immunological function and the production of auto-antibodies; thus, leading to the formation of immune complexes that may have adverse effects on healthy tissues. Most patients also experience periodic flares of varying severity or instances in which no observable signs or symptoms are present. Abnormal innate immune responses play significant role in the pathogenesis of SLE. They lead to tissue injury through the release of inflammatory cytokines…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    What is the Mechanism of Action of Corticosteroid?

      Corticosteroid is synthetic drug that mimic the adrenal hormone, cortisol, used in the management of many inflammatory and autoimmune health conditions. They modify the functions of epidermal and dermal cells and of leukocytes involved in proliferative and inflammatory diseases of the skin. Corticosteroids can be used in treating several health conditions, such as: Asthma Allergies Eczema Hives Psoriasis Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Gout Lupus Multiple sclerosis Autoimmune diseases Types of corticosteroids Corticosteroids come in different forms. Some of the corticosteroids used in treating inflammations include cortisone, prednisone and methylprednisolone. Prednisone is the most commonly used type of steroids used in treating certain rheumatoid diseases like rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    Antabuse may help revive vision in progressive blinding disorder

    Antabuse (Disulfiram) is an inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase, which is directly relevant to its role in curbing alcohol consumption. It is previously used in treating patients addicted to alcohol and/or cocaine consumption. Antabuse undermines dopamine transmission and dampen the euphoric and stimulant effect of cocaine.   Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have however discovered that Antabuse helps to improve sight in mice with retinal degeneration. The drug may revive sight in humans with the inherited disease retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and perhaps in other vision disorders, including age-related macular degeneration. A group of scientists led by Richard Kramer, UC Berkeley professor of molecular and cell biology, had previously shown…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    CLC-3

      CLC-3 is an intracellular chloride transport protein known to reside on the endosomes and synaptic vesicles, which plays a role in cancer cell proliferation. It is a member of the CLC gee family that encodes Cl– channels and Cl–/H+ exchangers, and is predominantly expressed in membranes of the endosomal system. It may also be present in synaptic vesicles and synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs). CLC-3 assists in acidification of endosomes and other compartments by shunting the electrical current of the vessicular V-type H+-ATPase. Also, CLC-3 either changes the vesicular voltage or lead to luminal chloride accumulation, as directly shown for the lysosomal 2Cl–/H+-exchanger, CLC-7.   CLC protein structure CLC has three…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    CaMKII

      CaMKII (Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is one of the most important regulators of calcium signaling. It is a ubiquitous mediator of Ca2+-linked signaling that phosphorylates a wide range of substrates to co-ordinate and regulate Ca2+-mediated alterations in cellular functions. CaMKII is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase, which plays a critical role in the survival, proliferation, invasion, and differentiation of various cancer cells by activating multiple signaling pathways, such as the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase B (AKT), the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. It also plays a critical role in the survival, proliferation, and maintenance of cancer stem cells. According to research…