• Autoimmune diseases

    Alzheimer’s disease

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a disorder that causes degeneration of the cells in the brain; and it is the major cause of dementia, and is characterized by a decline in thinking ability and independence in personal daily activities. It also causes the brain shrinkage and death. Alzheimer’s disease affects people of age 65 years and above with only 10% of cases occurring in people younger than this. In AD, plaques are formed in the hippocampus, which helps in encoding memories, and in other areas of the cerebral cortex that are involved in thinking and making decisions.   Symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease Alzheimer’s disease develops in a progressive manner, with the…

  • Image of people with Down syndrome
    Autoimmune diseases

    Down syndrome

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder that  occurs when there is an abnormal cell division, which results in an extra copy of chromosome 21. This extra genetic material is the cause of some developmental changes and physical features of DS. A baby is typically born with 46 chromosomes, but in babies with Down syndrome, there is an extra copy of the chromosome, chromosome 21. This extra chromosome changes the baby’s body and brain development, which can cause mental and physical challenges for the baby. People with Down syndrome usually look alike. But despite the similarities in facial appearances, each person has different abilities. They usually have low IQ and…