• Autoimmune diseases

    FIBROBLAST ACTIVATION PROTEIN-α (FAP)

    Fibroblast activation protein-α (FAP) is an inducible cell surface glycoprotein originally identified in 1986 in cultured fibroblasts using the monoclonal antibody (mAb) F19. It is a type ii integral serine protease that is specifically expressed by activated fibroblast. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor stroma have an abundant and stable expression of FAP, which plays an important role in promoting tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, and immunosupression. For example, in females with a high incidence of breast cancer, CAFs account for 50-70% of the cells in the tumor’s microenvironment. CAF over expression of FAP promotes tumor development and metastasis by extracellular matrix remodeling, intracellular signaling, angiogenesis, epithelia-to-mesenchymal transition, and immunosuppression.  …