• Autoimmune diseases

    Covid-19 Spike protein: structure and functions.

    Covid-19 (coronavirus) spike protein mediates the entry of corona virus into the host cell. It is a multifunctional molecular machine that mediates coronavirus entry into host cells by binding to the receptor on the host cell surface through its S1 subunit, and then fuses viral and host membranes through its S2 subunit. The coronavirus spike is composed of three segments, ahich are a large ectodomain, a single-pass transmembrane anchor, and a short intracellular tail. The ectodomain consists of a receptor-binding subunit S1 and a membrane-fusion subunit S2. The spike is a clove-shaped trimer with three S1 heads and a trimeric S2 stalk. During virus entry, the S1 binds to a…