• Black cumin fruit and seeds
    Autoimmune diseases

    Effect of Black Seed Thymoquinone on Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Thymoquinone (2-isoprpyl-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone) is the most active component of Black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed oil. It is widely used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of illnesses. According to various research findings, thymoquinone exert important health-beneficial effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. As an antioxidant agent, thymoquinone normalizes glutathione levels and increases the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase.   Black Cumin Tea Contains Thymoquinone Black cumin seed is made into a tea and served as an antioxidant agent. Since it contains thymoquinone and other biologically active phytochemicals, black cumin seed tea should be recommended for patients who suffer rheumatoid arthritis. It…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    Molecular Mechanisms of Osteoarthritis

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative disorder which occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in joints wear down over a period of time. The molecular mechanisms of osteoarthritis have not received much attention among the public, except the few who are in research and development of drugs. OA is the most prevalent chronic joint disease, which increases in prevalence with age and affects majority of persons over 65. Unlike Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), OA is caused by mechanical wear and tear at the joints. Also, while RA can occur at any stage, OA occurs later in life of the individual. Both however, share some similarities in their…

  • Autoimmune diseases

    Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-kB)

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) is a transcription factor that plays critical functional roles in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. It exists in an inactive state in the cytosol and can be stimulated by molecules such as TNF╬▒, and other cell stressors. NF-kB is found in almost all cellular cell types and is identified as a regulator of kB light chain expression in mature B and plasma cells. Because NF-kB has the ability to influence the expression of numerous genes, its activity is tightly regulated at multiple levels. The primary mechanism for regulating NF-kB is through inhibitory IkB proteins and the IKK complex, which phosphorylates IkBs. Nuclear Factor-kappa B…