Systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) or simply, Lupus is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease with a wide range of clinical presentations resulting from its effect on multiple organs and systems. Patients with SLE experience a loss of self tolerance. This is because of abnormal immunological function and the production of auto-antibodies; thus, leading to the formation of immune complexes that may have adverse effects on healthy tissues. Most patients also experience periodic flares of varying severity or instances in which no observable signs or symptoms are present.
Abnormal innate immune responses play significant role in the pathogenesis of SLE. They lead to tissue injury through the release of inflammatory cytokines and also to abnormal activation of auto-reactive T and B cells, with the later leading to pathogenic autoantibody production and resultant organ injury.
Due to its complex nature, SLE is sometimes known as the “disease of a thousand faces.”